Tuesday, August 25, 2020

Photochemical Synthesis of Benzopinacol free essay sample

In this response, atoms of benzophenone was brought to n((* triplet state where it perhaps disconnected hydrogen from isopropyl liquor and through ensuing responses of radicals it framed two diphenyl ketyl radical which dimerized into benzopinacol. In this way, blend of orchestrated benzopinacol, frigid acidic corrosive and iodine gem responded in a corrosive catalyzed revision wherein lack of hydration of benzopinacol came about into the development of carbocation. In this express, a fragrant moved and afterward, framing delocalized carbocation. A while later, recovering the impetus balanced out the atom into benzopinacolone. After subjective and quantitative investigation of the items, it was discovered that benzopinacol was effectively integrated as confirmed by the IR range which contained OH expansive stretch at 3417. 86 cm-1-3460. 30 cm-1 and suggestions at 1800 cm-1-1950 cm-1 area. Be that as it may, irregularity was seen in the decided softening purpose of 200(C-210(C which veered off from hypothetical 47. 9(C maybe because of inappropriate utilization of the device. Then again, combination of benzopinacolone was not a triumph as there was no intense change seen in its IR range to that of benzopinacol and deviation on decided dissolving point from 175(C-177(C to 190(C-197(C which possibly because of inadequacy of response. Low yields were additionally acquired after the examination as just 18. 16 %( 0. 73g) benzopinacol and 21. 88% (0. 104g) benzopinacolone was gathered. I. Presentation Photochemistry is the investigation of compound responses, isomerizations and physical conduct which happens affected by noticeable or bright light. There are two basic laws in respect with this guideline. To start with, the Grotthuss-Draper law which expresses that light should be retain by the compound to start photochemical response. Second, the Stark-Einstein’s law which expresses that for every photon of light consumed by the compound, just a single atom is initiated for continuing responses. Here, the ingestion of obvious or bright light energizes the particles wherein change in sub-atomic orbital inhabitance, an expansion in vitality, change in neighborhood circulation and change in control dispersion happens. This excitation brings about the number of inhabitants in higher vibrational levels where a few marvels may then happen, for example, the vibrational vitality lost might be use to loosen up the particle carrying it to zero vibrational level. Another, the energized state may come back to ground state by radiating photon. The vitality of this radiated light is lower to the at first ingested light. This radiative rot is called fluorescence in the event that it happens quickly from introductory to energized state. Furthermore, glow in the event that it happens gradually by another energized state. What's more, in conclusion, the particle may cut into radicals. For better outline, In the Jablonski chart, appeared above, it highlights potential courses for energized atom to return into its ground state. In the graph, electronic conditions of atoms and progress states are appeared. The states are organized vertically by vitality and are assembled evenly by their turn assortment. This outwardly presents the system in atom excitation and unwinding. For the most part for aryl ketones like benzophenone, after excitation, it might potentially experience hydrogen deliberation, bond cleavage or cycloaddtion. Another guideline to be utilized in this combination is the pinacol reworking. In this marvel, the atom is dehydrolyzed within the sight of a corrosive and subsequently, development of carbocation happens. At that point, a move is seen by one of the molecules to the carbocation. Lastly, to balance out the atom, impetus is then recovered to yield the last item. In this investigation, benzopinacol is to be incorporated through photochemical response from benzophenone and benzopinacolone by means of corrosive catalyzed adjustment of benzopinacol. II. System In this trial, benzopinacol was to be orchestrated through photochemical response and its corrosive catalyzed revision item benzopinacolone. Blend of Benzopinacol In this amalgamation, 2. 0g of benzophenone was disintegrated in 50ml isopropyl liquor in 50ml Erlenmeyer flagon. In this arrangement, one drop of chilly acidic corrosive was included. It was then topped with isopropyl liquor off to the edge. After, the jar was stoppered utilizing a very much moved plug. It was guaranteed that next to no air as potential was caught inside the cup. It was firmly tie utilizing a parafilm. The cup was upset and presented to daylight outside the research facility. After all extra item stopped to frame, the response blend was cooled in an ice shower to permit precipitation of benzopinacol. The last item was then separated off from the arrangement utilizing a Buchener channel. Its softening point, yield and infrared spetrum was then gotten. The Acid-Catalyzed Rearrangement of Benzopinacol In this blend, in a test tube, 2. 5ml of frosty acidic corrosive and a little precious stone of iodine were set. In this test tube, 0. 5g of benzopinacol as of late orchestrated was included. The arrangement was then warmth to break down benzopinacol and further warmed for 5 minutes. After a firm glue item shaped, the response blend was cooled to room temperature. The crystalline mass that framed was consequently diminished to pieces. Utilizing a little ethanol, the glue was diminished. The blend was then centrifuged and the supernant was emptied leaving the solids in the test tube. Another two centrifugations were performed, note that, modest quantity of ethanol was included after every decantation. The item shaped was then moved to a channel paper by resuspending the solids in a little chilly ethanol. At that point, it was sifted through attractions. It was hence take shape by dissolving the separated solids in a 5ml of 2:1 blend of toluene and hexane in a pre-gauged vial. The vial was secured with aluminum foil with gaps and was left in the smoke hood to dry the item. Its softening, yield and infared range was gotten the following gathering. III. Results and Discussion In this analysis, it is meant to blended benzopinacol from benzophenone by means of photochemical response and benzopinacolone through corrosive catalyzed reworking. In the combination of benzopinacol, benzophenone experienced photochemical response. Here, the beginning material was presented to daylight which provided enough vitality to energize its particles. Benzophenone after engrossing light, experienced a fast intersystem intersection of n((* singlet state to an enthusiastically close (((* triplet state. At that point, the last quickly rotted into n((* triplet state. This pathway is appeared on the accompanying chart: Figure 1: Benzophenone Excited State In the graph, energized benzophenone was loose through change to a triplet state and along these lines loose by means of brightness. After photoexcitation of benzophenone, hydrogen reflection response hence continued. Figure 2: Hydrogen Abstraction of Isopropyl Alcohol The n((* triplet condition of carbonyl mixes is diradicaloid in nature consequently, perhaps take an interest in hydrogen deliberation. In Figure 2, in this system, hydrogen of isopropyl liquor was preoccupied by benzophenone in a n((* triplet state to yield diphenyl ketyl and dimethyl ketyl radical. Figure 3: Radical Transfer Here, radical exchange from the dimethyl ketyl radical to benzophenone happened in which yielded CH3)2CO and another diphenyl ketyl radical. Figure 4: Dimerization of Diphenyl Ketyl Radicals In this last component, the two recently created diphenyl ketyl radicals dimerized to frame benzopinacol. Before the response component, as done in the techniques, one drop of chilly acidic corrosive was included the response blend. It was done to expel the soluble base which possibly present in the blend that would subsequently make decay of the item benzophenone and benzohydrol. After the amalgamation, subjective examination was done to the incorporated item to confirm its prosperity. Figure 5: IR Spectrum of Synthesized Benzopinacol Looking at the structure of benzopinacol, it was to be relied upon to have a wide â€OH stretch and suggestions locale. In the infrared range of the combined item as appeared in Figure 5, there was a wide stretch at 3417. 86 cm-1-3460. 30 cm-1, enclosed in blue, which is especially because of hydroxyl present in the compound. Furthermore, a suggestions at 1800 cm-1-1950 cm-1 as appeared in the Figure5, surrounded with red, is for the most part because of the nearness of fragrant rings. Another subjective test done was the liquefying point assurance of the last item. Hypothetically, the softening purpose of benzophenone is 47. 9(C. In any case, the blended item softened at 200(C-210(C. This irregularity perhaps because of inappropriate utilization of softening point device since there was watched consistency with the infrared range acquired. Quantitatively, the hypothetical yield of the item should be 4. 02g anyway in the amalgamation 0. 73g or just 18. 16% was blended. Loss of material was possibly because of long stockpiling of the item inside the storage wherein a few items spilled out the compartment. From the combined benzophenone, 0. 5g was utilized to orchestrate benzopinacolone by means of corrosive catalyzed modification. Figure 6: Benzopinacol Rearrangement In this disproportionation response, frigid acidic corrosive protonated one of the hydroxyl gathering, thus giving a positive charge on oxygen. Subsequently, the compound was then got dried out where water was evacuated and accordingly framing a carbocation. At that point, it experienced pinacolone revision wherein a fragrant relocated to the carbocation recently framed and consequently, shaping an increasingly steady carbocation middle of the road where charge was delocalized in a heteroatom as H+ is connected with oxygen. What's more, since, H+ was the impetus, it was recovered along these lines balancing out the particle framing benzopinacolone.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Income Tax Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Personal Tax - Coursework Example 2. Wages and compensations was made out of: †¨Salary taken by Ronni,  £25,000 †¨Wages paid to Bryn (Ronni’s father) for work done to fix bikes, at a pace of  £20 every hour (30 hrs x 48 weeks) =  £28,800 †¨Wages paid to associate bike repairer at a pace of  £15 every hour (30 hrs x 48 weeks) =  £21,600 †¨Casual help in shop,  £5,400 †¨Ã¢â‚¬ ¨ 4. Fixes and restorations was made out of: †¨Repairs to stockroom floor  £850 †¨Repairs to level above shop  £750 †¨Cleaning materials  £300 †¨Cleaning contract for shop and workshop †¨Ã¢ £500 †¨Sundry little things  £250 †¨Ã¢â‚¬ ¨Ã¢â‚¬ ¨Ã¢â‚¬ ¨ 5. Engine Expenses for the most part for the expense of running Ronni’s domain vehicle utilized for gathering/conveying broken/patched bikes and for shipping things for the shop from the money and convey outlet. Private utilization of the vehicle had been concurred at 30%. †¨Diesel fuel, vehicle  £8500 †¨Insurance for vehicle  £1200 †¨Repairs, vehicle  £350 †¨Road finance charge, vehicle  £375 †¨Rental of van  £600 †¨Ã¢â‚¬ ¨ 7. Various costs of were made out of: †¨Subscription to magazine, ‘Cycling Today’ †¨Ã¢ £100 †¨Subscription to Green gathering  £50 †¨Subscription to ‘New Transport Systems’ †¨Ã¢ £24 †¨Sponsorship of nearby junior school cycling capability grants  £50 †¨Donation to Green gathering  £25 †¨Donation to neighborhood emergency clinic A&E office (Ronni had a mishap and broke her arm)  £100 †¨Ã¢â‚¬ ¨Postage, writing material and phone costs  £100 †¨Ã¢â‚¬ ¨Accountancy charges  £80 †¨Sundry different things  £100†¨Ã¢â‚¬ ¨ Compute the available exchanging benefit for Ronni’s business for the year finished 30 September 2011. †¨You ought to give your own information where none is given, guaranteeing that you hold an available exchanging benefit (for example not an exchanging misfortune) and ought to guarantee that you pick information that will completely show your insight into tax collection. Compute the Income charge payable by Ronni for the assessment year 2011/12, giving your own information where none is given, to completely show your insight

Monday, August 10, 2020

A Year away from home

A Year away from home Hey Guys ????!!!! Happy Lunar New Year!!! I finally made it around to making this video about my time in China. If you can’t tell, I decided to do this video in Chinese so please forgive me for the countless mistakes I make… I still have so much practice I need to do. I spent a good amount of time trying to figure out what was the best way to make this video, and settled on doing it in Chinese and writing English subtitles (I have a new respect for people that write translated subtitles… people say sooo many words lol). However, this video is very much just an intro, going over things like first impressions, my day to day schedule, and things like that. I want to do at least two to three more posts going into more detail about my time abroad, some will be videos and some more standard posts depending on the subject. As of right now I have two big posts I want to make, “being black in china” and “my globalization experience in China.” However, I do want to go into detail about things you might be curious about. So, if you do have anything you would like me to write about in specific please tell me so I can make a post about it or at the very least answer some questions in the comments lol. With that said please enjoy this video that took me wayyyy to long to translate!!! P.S. I think you have to turn subtitles on, so just click the CC and just click English.

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Animal rights - 1084 Words

â€Å"Animals with rights must be treated as ends in themselves, they should not be treated by others as means to achieve their ends.† (Francione) An idea opposing to Immanuel Kant’s beliefs. Animals are apart of the moral community, their intrinsic worth justifies this, and causes for certain rights to be established to uphold their worth within the community. To not respect the welfare of nonhuman animals, and to provide special treatment for humans, goes against Peter Singer’s ideas for a harmonious community, and instead showcases speciesism. The established thought that has been shown through the ages that certain races are more superb than others is the continuous downfall of nations and inhibits progression. There is much disagreement†¦show more content†¦435, Rachels) This thought of treating animals with respect as we do humans, seems to be exaggerated in Rachels’ article. It’s not that the article is exaggerated people’s viewpoints, it is just in general that people really do feel this way when it comes to accepting animals into the moral society. It doesn’t have to be to that extreme, it just goes back to the simple rule â€Å"treat others as you want to be treated†. Human’s don’t need to go above and beyond in living side by side with animals, there’s just small things that could be done, and thoughts that could be eliminated to help the nation move forward, as Gandhi said, â€Å"the greatness of a nation and its moral progress can be judged by the way its animals are treated.† If human’s can change and move forward, it could erase the need to; â€Å"take refuge in religious and cultural traditions but instead examine our actions and decisions in light of the actual conseq uences. This entails overcoming our ignorance regarding the extent to which our lifestyle is built upon the suffering of other people or animals and the destruction of the environment.† (Francione) This principle of utility showcases the fact that the many ideas humans have where they feel that animals are there only for instrumental worth. Animals have intrinsic worth, they should be allowed rights and respect, â€Å"we should abolish, and not regulate, animal exploitation, you must care morally about animals.† (Francione) Just as progression has been made inShow MoreRelatedAnimal Rights And Human Rights923 Words   |  4 Pages Animal Rights â€Å"Nearly as many, 68 percent, were concerned or very concerned about the well-being of animals used in ‘sports’ or contests as well as animals in laboratories (67 percent) (Kretzer, 1).† Many people question whether an animal is capable of thought and emotions. Others feel as though animals are the equivalent of humans and should be treated as such. Since the 1800’s, animal rights has been a topic that has several different sides including two extremes. If animals can react to theirRead MoreThe Debate On Animal Rights910 Words   |  4 PagesThere are two major schools of thought on animal protection. First, is the tenet that animals should have rights and the second, more radical view, is that animals should be liberated. Many of the rights that are promoted for animals are similar to the rights of human democratic societies. The basic rights, which are recommended by a number of advocates, are that animals should be free from suffering, be in posses sion of their own life, and their basic interests should be given the same considerationRead MoreAnimal Rights Essay886 Words   |  4 PagesAnimal rights - moral or legal entitlements attributed to nonhuman animals, usually because of the complexity of their cognitive, emotional, and social lives or their capacity to experience physical or emotional pain or pleasure. (Britannia encyclopedia online, n.d.). The definition of animal rights is so clear to us. Human rights need to be protected, so do animal rights. In 1976, in New York City, thousands of cat lovers were beaten when they heard a painful test to be taken for pets’ sexualRead MoreEssay on ANIMAL RIGHTS790 Words   |  4 PagesAnimals have their own rights as do to humans and we should respect that and give them the same respect we give each other. Animals deserve to be given those same basic rights as humans. All humans are considered equal and ethical principles and legal statutes should protect the rights of ani mals to live according to their own nature and remain free from exploitation. This paper is going to argue that animals deserve to have the same rights as humans and therefore, we don’t have the right to killRead MoreAnimal Rights Philosophy768 Words   |  4 Pagesissue of animal rights, Carl Cohen takes on the perspective of a reformist. This means that he accepts animal experimentation and meat eating, but believes that these institutions need to be improved upon. Cohen approaches the issue of animal rights using the ideas of obligations and rights, with not only the reformist perspective, but with the speciesist perspective. The conclusion he draws is that animals do not necessarily have rights just because humans have moral obligations to animals. CohenRead MoreThe Argument Of Animal Rights2068 Words   |  9 PagesSeems rhetorical, but the fact is animals live through this everyday, without even given the choice. As humans, we establish our authority among all living beings, but for what reasons? Are humans better than all other species? Or is it true that we should hold a precedence over nonhuman animals? The ultimate question then remains, should animals have as much or equal to the same rights as humans? Their are endless arguments for and against this question, and many sub arguments that go hand in handRead MoreAnimal Rights And The Rights Of Animals1843 Words   |  8 Pagesthe rights of animals and if they think and feel like humans do. Many people see animals as mindless creatures or as food, while others think they have emotions and can feel pain. In other countries animal protection laws are in place that are strictly enforced and seem to work well with the system. In the United States however; some of the anima l rights laws are considered to be useless and under-enforced (Animal Legal Historical Center). More people today are beginning to see that animals shouldRead MoreThe Issue Of Animal Rights Essay2300 Words   |  10 PagesAnimals have the right to equal consideration in regards to their being used for human needs as most people use animals for their own needs on a daily basis even if only indirectly whether to entertain us, or to attain the product we are using, or on our dinner plate. The controversy of the treatment of animals range from some activists and philosophers that are outspoken against animals being used by humans in any way for our own personal needs, while others are candid in their belief that animalsRead More Animal Rights Essay2330 Words   |  10 PagesAnimals and man have shared this planet since humans first appeared on earth. Animals have provided transportation, food, clothing, shelter, companionship and entertainment throughout the ages. Therefore, it is our duty to treat animals with respect, care and kindness and not cause them undue suffering, because they have, in many ways, made it possible for man to survive on earth. However, because normal adult humans have superior mental abilities in the hierarchical scale in nature, animals haveRead MoreArgumentary On Animals And Animal Rights1523 Words   |  7 Pagesclass was crazy! There was so much information regarding animal rights†¦ Sasha: I know. But I don’t know if any of that changed my views. I still think becoming a vegetarian is the way to go. Devon: You think? I still think that it is okay to eat meat. The animals just need to be raised in a humane manner. Sasha: Eh†¦I don’t know. Animals should just be left alone and be free to roam around in the wild. They should not be tortured like those animals that I saw while visiting that â€Å"kill floor†. Devon:

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Management Information Systems Assignment Report Free Essays

115. 107 Management Information Systems Assignment Report Contents Part 1 – ER Diagram2 Part 2 – Tables and Keys3 Part 3 – Queries4 Part 4: Spreadsheet filters and pivot tables7 List of Figures Figure 1 – ER diagram for event management system of hotel2 Figure 2 – Query 1 QBE for staff allocation4 Figure 3 – Query 1 output for staff allocation4 Figure 4 – Query 2 QBE for scheduled events beginning of October5 Figure 5 – Query 2 output for scheduled events beginning of October5 Figure 6 – Query 2 database report for scheduled events beginning of October6 Figure 7 – Query 3 QBE for total number of registered participants6 Figure 8 – Query 3 output for total number of registered participants7 Figure 9 – Spreadsheet data with no filers or conditional formatting applied7 Figure 10 – Spreadsheet with the â€Å"show only events commencing after 15th October filter applied7 Figure 11 – Spreadsheet with the ‘show only events commencing after 1st November as underlined’ conditional formatting applied8 Figure 12 – Pivot table8 Figure 13 – Pivot table as a bar chart8 List of Tables Table 1 – Attributes for ER diagram for event management system of hotel2 Table 2 – Attributes for ER diagram for event management system of hotel3 Part 1 – ER Diagram StaffMember Venue Event Registration Attendee Reserved for Manages Accept Makes Applies to 1.. We will write a custom essay sample on Management Information Systems Assignment Report or any similar topic only for you Order Now * 1.. * 1 1 1 0.. * 0.. * 0.. * 0.. * Payment Accept 0.. * 0.. * 1 Gains entry Client System Presents 0.. * Record Details 1 0.. * Inputs 1.. * 1.. * Figure [ 1 ] – ER diagram for event management system of hotel Table [ 1 ] – Attributes for ER diagram for event management system of hotel Entity Type| Attributes| Key attribute| Venue| venueID, venueCapacity, venueDescription| venueID| Event| eventID, eventName, eventType, startDate, endDate, startTime, endTime, availableSpaces, eventFee| eventide| StaffMember| staffID, firstName, lastName, jobTitle | staffID| Registration | registrationID, registrationDate, eventID | registrationID| Attendee| attendeeID, firstName, lastName, title, companyName, contactAddress, phoneNo | attendeeID| Payment| paymentAmount, paymentDate, paymentType, paymentCredit, creditcardID, creditcardName, creditcardExpiry| paymentID| Client| clientName, companyName, contactAddress, contactPhone, clientIndustry, clientNeeds| clientID| System| systemClient, systemAttendee, systemVenues, systemInvoice, | systemID| Part 2 – Tables and Keys Table [ 2 ] – Attributes for ER diagram for event management system of hotel Table| Column| Primary Key| Comments| VenueTbl| venueID, venueCapacity, venueDescription| venueID| | EventTbl| eventID, eventName, eventType, startDate, endDate, startTime, endTime, availableSpaces, eventFee, staffID| eventID| staffID is a foreign key into StaffMemberTbl. | StaffMemberTbl| staffID, firstName, lastName, jobTitle | staffID| | RegistrationTbl| registrationID, registrationDate ,eventID, attendeeID| registrationID| eventID is a foreign key into EventTbl while attendeeID is a foreign key into AttendeeTbl| AttendeeTbl| attendeeID, firstName, lastName, title, companyName, contactAddress, phoneNo, eventID, registrationID| attendeeID| RegistrationID is a foreign key into RegistrationTbl while event ID is a foreign key into EventTbl. ReservedforTbl| eventID, venueID, attendeeID, | reserveID| eventID is a foreign key into EventTbl while attendeeID is a foreign key into AttendeeTbl| Part 3 – Queries Query 1 -StaffAllocation Figure [ 2 ] – Query 1 QBE for staff allocation Figure [ 3 ] – Query 1 ou tput for staff allocation Query 2 – YearEndSchedule Figure [ 4 ] – Query 2 QBE for scheduled events beginning of October Figure [ 5 ] – Query 2 output for scheduled events beginning of October **For unknown reasons, event 9, 16 17 is not listed in the search result even when the date falls within the range as set out in the criteria. I have attempted to modify the criteria selection to cover between the date range of 30/09/2011 – 01/01/2050 etc but it has still failed to come up. Query 2 – Year End Report Figure [ 6 ] – Query 2 database report for scheduled events beginning of October Query 3 – Registration Numbers Figure [ 7 ] – Query 3 QBE for total number of registered participants Figure [ 8 ] – Query 3 output for total number of registered participants Part 4: Spreadsheet filters and pivot tables Figure [ 9 ] – Spreadsheet data with no filTers or conditional formatting applied Figure [ 10 ] – Spreadsheet with the show only events commencing after 15th October filter applied Figure [ 11 ] – Spreadsheet with the ‘show only events commencing after 1st November as underlined’ conditional formatting applied Figure [ 12 ] – Pivot table Figure [ 13 ] – Pivot table as a bar chart How to cite Management Information Systems Assignment Report, Papers

Saturday, May 2, 2020

Reflective Journal Entry Click To Get Complete Solution

Question: What went right (or wrong) during your placement? Note that reflecting on issues which go wrong may be even more valuable than reflecting on the positive experiences. Answer: Introduction: A reflective journal is basically the reflection of thoughts and experiences of an individual in a certain context. A reflective journal basically includes the experiences and feelings of a person regarding a certain position or condition. The main aim of this reflective journal is to present my experiences and what I learnt during my internship with Townsend Associates. I worked as an intern with the Townsend Associates from 4th December 2014 till 7th January. Townsend Associates is a nationally recognised recruitment and staffing firm that is established in 1999. The organisation has a reputation to comply with and go beyond the expectations of the clients and they are diversified. The organisation has achieved the competitive advantage in the industry with the help of quality service that is provided by the organisation to its clients. The company is diversified in a various industries and they learn about the business of their clients and then take various actions for the prov ision of a better service (Townsend-associates.com, 2015). The organisation evaluates the processes, environment and the culture of the clients and then it offers them the talent that is high calibre. The main aim of this company is to become the staffing firm that will be selected by the professionals and the clients first. There are several core competencies of the organisation and these are the continuous improvement in full time placements and project staffing (Ptai.com, 2015) Now some of the key staff or members of the organisation and their position can be stated here. Phillip Townsend (Chairman and Founder) Barjor M. Dastur (CEO the President) Dave Bohmbach (Vice President) Kevin p.ODonnell (Managing Director) Kathleen Blumenthal (Chief Administrative Officer) Jennifer Welch, (Chief Information Officer) Daniel Compte (Division Manager) (Fdtownsend.com, 2015) The internship started with the induction programme that was conducted by the organisation. The induction programme was conducted by the division manager and in that induction programme, the information about the organisation and its achievements were provided. In the introductory session, the operations of the company, their role and position in the industry were discussed along with the type of services that are provided to the clients. After that we were addressed to give our introduction and the services that we were interested in. Now the entries can be provided covering each day. The Entries Covering Each Day: Day 1: The first day was the introduction day. The induction programme was conducted on the first day. The managing director of the company greeted us. After that the manger started the induction programme where the details about the organisation were given. The operations of the company and the kind of services that are provided by the company were discussed in the programme. After that we were addressed to provide our introduction and educational background. I informed them about my area of interest and the expertise that I required. They had given us the introduction about the staff members of the organisation and how the organisation maintained the core competencies within the organisation. After that we were given a tour of the organisation. I saw how the organisation was operating and learnt the roles and responsibilities of the staff members. Day 2: On the second day, I learn about personal tax system and how the company provides services to the clients in this department. Townsend Associates provide the personal tax service to its clients. It is known that the company has the efficinecy in the provision of the service to the clients. I had knowledge regarding the personal tax system and how it is imposed on the income of an individual. I knew about the tax structure that exists in the economy and the tax bases as well. During the internship programme, I learnt other information about the personal income tax like the exemption conditions and also how to process the legal documentation. The application processes and procedures for the individuals and how they can be processed by the organisation. I also learnt about the issues that can be faced by the clients and how they can be dealt with as a professional. Day 3: On the third day more information was given on handling the personal income taxes of the clients. On this day, a practical application of the system and how the issues were dealt with were discussed. I learnt about the entry of tax bases for the clients and also gained more knowledge and expertise about various softwares that can be used by the organisation for the accounting practices. Here I learnt about using the excel function and advanced excel options that are used for the personal tax system. The managers and the staff in the organisation were very helpful. They shared with us their practical experiences and how they deal with the clients. They also informed me regarding the issues that can be occurring with the clients and how they need to be dealt with. The staffs were very cooperative and they also answered the queries that I had raised regarding the process. Day 4: On the fourth day I learnt about the company tax and how the company provides services to the clients in this department. Townsend Associates provide the services related with the company or corporate tax to its clients. I had knowledge regarding the corporate tax system and how it is imposed on a company. I had knowledge about the tax structure that exists in the economy for the corporate entities and the tax bases as well. During the internship programme, I learnt other information about the tax like the exemption conditions and also how to process the legal documentation. The application processes and procedures for the companies and how they can be processed by the organisation. I also learnt about the issues that can be faced in terms of dealing with the clients by the organisation. On the fourth day I also gained the practical knowledge regarding the corporate tax laws and the implication of these laws for the companies. The staffs were very cooperative and they answered to al l my queries that I had regarding the operations. Day 5: On the fifth day I gained experience of the quick book system. This was a unique experience for me as I only had the knowledge and some information about the QuickBooks. I knew that the QuickBooks are accounting software that is used by many organisations. It can be said that quick books are very important for increasing the efficiency of the accounting system in an organisation (Quickbooks.intuit.com, 2015). The QuickBooks can help in managing the finances and it can also perform several daily tasks like invoicing, billing and bookkeeping. The taxes can be estimated by tracking the sales and the expenses with the help of the QuickBooks system. How the QuickBooks can help an organisation in managing their accounting process was also shown. The application of the QuickBooks system was very new for me and I learnt a lot from the organisation and its existing staff. Day 6: On the sixth day I continued to learn about the application of the QuickBooks system and how it can be used for increasing the efficiency of the clients organisation. On the sixth day I learnt to use the system and also performed some random tasks that can be conducted in the QuickBooks. I also learnt that these systems can also be operated by using the mobile devices like iPad, iPhone and Android. How the data is entered in the software system and how the data is managed was also shown by the staff. The application can be used for knowing the where the business stands. It was also learnt that the profit loss, the balance statement and other financial reports can be created in the QuickBooks. The staff helped with every process and answered my queries. While operating the system, I made a mistake regarding the entry process but they quickly rectified the mistake and resolved it. They also elaborated on the common mistakes that can be conducted in this system and the ways to rectify the mistake. It was a good experience of learning the system as it can benefit in my future. Day 7: On the 7th day I learnt about the payroll system. I had the theoretical knowledge about the payroll system before. Payroll is basically the sum of all financial records for the wages and the salaries of all the employees in an organisation. In the payroll system, the deductions and the bonuses of all the employees are also included and after accounting all these information, the wages are paid to the employees. In the internship programme, I learnt to use the software that can be used for managing the payroll system in an organisation. The payroll and the HRMS software operations were also shown in the organisation. I learnt the importance of the software and how this can provide the simple and effective solution for an organisation. The payroll management software can help in delivering the advantages to the clients and I also learnt that the software is flexible and thus it can also incorporate various changes in the policies for the payment system of the staff. I performed some co mmon and basic tasks with the software system after watching the human resource personnel at work. He helped me immensely during the entire process. It was a bit difficult and confusing at the beginning but after watching the professionals for several hours operating the system, I understood the process. Day 8: On the 8th day, I worked at the accounting administration department of the company. It is known that accounting management is one of the crucial and important functions of an organisation. In the administration department of accounting basically helps in achieving the financial goals of an organisation by focusing on the management planning and by controlling. I experienced how the financial information are collected and by planning and controlling various decisions are made within the organisation. There were four people in the administrative department and I saw them perform various duties and activities. I also learn how to work with the finance for competing daily tasks within the organisation. I had initial knowledge about managerial accounting principles and activities related with the process. During the internship programme, I had difficulty initially but the staffs at the organisation were helpful and they helped in learning about the process. Day 9: On the ninth day, I learnt to prepare basic documentation for the clients. There are various services that are provided by the organisation to the clients. The job functions that are provided by the organisation include administration, auditor, chemists, business analytics, logistics, marketing, project management etc. The organisation provides the staffing opportunities to all the clients. There are some office work especially documentation process is related with the task. On the ninth day I learnt how the documentation process is conducted for the business unit. It is evident that documentation process is very important for operational process. The documentation process can be different for different organisations but the documentation process is very important for the operations of an organisation. I also learnt the importance of the process as a single mistake can lead to grave consequences. Thus it is necessary that the documentation is carefully conducted. The team working in the documentation department helped me learn the system and I also performed some tasks at the end of the day. The staff also complemented me on my performance. Day 10: On the tenth day I learnt to respond to phone calls in the organisation. It was an intense learning experience. It is known that in the service industry, the customers are very important and thus it is necessary that they are provided quality services. The organisation basically provides the staffing service to the clients and they have deal directly with the clients. On the tenth day I was given the instructions about dealing with the customers on the phone. At first I heard at the conversations of the professionals over there while they were conversing with the clients. I learnt how they answered particular queries and dealt with certain issues. They also gave me suggestions regarding the tone of speech that must be maintained while conversing with the clients. I also attended a few phone calls afterwards. I tried to deal with the clients as smoothly as I could but during certain queries I could not come up with a reply and the team helped me in that situation. After that I success fully answered some other calls and the team also praised me for my performance. It was a very good experience to directly deal with the customers. Day 11: On the 11th day I learnt to work on the spread sheet and data entry. It is evident that there are various services that are provided by the company and data entry and working on the spreadsheet is one of the necessary tasks that need to be conducted. I already had some experiences with the data entry and spreadsheet at the initial stage of the internship programme. On the 11th day I worked under the guidance of the professionals over there. I worked with the payroll, income tax, and corporate tax department with the worksheet. The team praised me for my performance with the spreadsheet and data entry. I also learnt advanced excel functions. Day 12: On the twelfth day I learnt more about the accounting process and how the professionals work in the accounting policies. On this day I learnt more about the book keeping and the accounting process from the professionals. On this day my shadowing for the accountant was completed. This helped me with my professional development process and it was very interesting and I also gained knowledge from the process. Extra Days: I visited the organisation again in January for some extra experience and I also enquired about the queries that I had during the internship programme. The managers gave me additional information and suggestions in the professional domain. They also gave me feedback on my work and provided recommendations for performing better in a professional domain. They told me that I was very hard working and they were impressed by my interest in the line of work. Summary and Conclusion: I liked various things while taking internship in Townsend and associates. The personnel in this organization with whom I am directly or indirectly related, all assisted me immensely during my internship. The best part of this organization is their ability to go beyond their clients expectations. They work depend on their clients requirements or I can say their service is customer oriented. The organization works in a diversified way in different industries and understands that the clients business practices are supreme to their performance and this guided them to be in the top places in the market. All professionals spend necessary time to assess the process, clients culture, environment to offer the clients immediate access to superior quality talent. The core competencies of this organization are full time placement and project staffing and that are incessantly improved to maintain their superior status in the market. All the professionals are committed, motivated and passionate t o offer the best experience to the clients. Microsoft Excel is a main program which is very much relevant in my field that is accounting administration, finance tasks etc. I was not well aware of this particular program, hence I have asked for assistance to learn more about the program apart from my internship project. The internal personnel were very much helpful that besides their respective job they have helped me enough that I have obtained confidence to work in Microsoft excel sheet. Initially my mentor use to send me to them to clarify my queries and I use to feel that he might be busy to properly guide me. But later I have understood that my mentor wanted to grow the capacity of teamwork inside me. Each personnel of this organization are very good at building strong relationships with their clients. Though people were very much helping in this organization, I have received negligence from few of the associated, as to them I am just an intern and asking for their help is a stu pid thing. Nevertheless, overall I was very much happy while pursuing my internship in this organization. I am agreeing with the fact that I have taken immense help from the internal associates of this company and also I have helped them in small projects that includes personal tax, company tax, accounting administration, basic documentation, spread sheet and data entry. I use to come first in the office and started attending the phone calls, I use to take notes and the important messages that I need to share with the respective internal associates. I have earned good amount of appreciation. These made me feel proud that I have not only obtained their help but also serve them as much as it was possible for me. I am pretty good in all the financial and accounting calculations. One of my senior associate once stuck in a finance calculation and I helped him to solve the problem that helped that person to a greater extent. I felt good by helping the person. My mentor assigned me each days homework and scheduled me a date on which I had to submit the tasks. There was not a single day I have d elayed in my task submission. I am very much punctual for what I have obtained immense appreciation. I always wish to work in a competitive environment. There were other peer mates, who were also pursuing internship along with me. I use to maintain proper work filing and a neat submission to my mentor. When my task was compared with others I always gained appreciation than my peer group mates. I already had a good theoretical knowledge on personal tax, company tax, accounting administration, basic documentation; spread sheet and data entry and while pursuing this internship I have learnt the practical application of these theoretical knowledge. I have tremendously encouraged because of my punctuality, neat task submission and helping nature to others. I thank my principal immensely for arranging such a nice internship opportunity for me. I could have not learnt so deeply from my classroom, as these experiences can only be gained from practical experiences. I do understand the fact that classroom can never bring such opportunities to each and every individual students but can just provide general guiding information. It is the students responsibility to properly comprehend what the teachers are teaching us. It should be a mutual effort from the mentors as well as the students to get a chance to pursue such internship courses outside the classroom. This immensely helps individuals to gain experience in various areas that require for professional development, like: leadership quality, teamwork, ability to comprehend, implementing good innovations and improvement strategically and so on. Each and every classroom is assigned to contain certain number of pupil and the teachers are responsible to take classes within certain time frame. B ut in case of internship, individual come in contact with various people from different part of this world and have no such time restriction to gain practical knowledge. There is no as such teacher to teach us but teaching is present from daily experiences. Both in classroom and in an organization we may get good guides, but in an organization, one individual should take the responsibility to choose in what way or how he/she can obtain knowledge on a particular factor. I can say that classroom is a book but organization is a knowledge bank. I have understood the importance of building good quality inside us. For example: maintaining punctuality or finishing a task with proper responsibility has helped me immensely while pursuing the internship from this organization. I have also agreed on this fact that practical knowledge has much more efficiencies than theatrical knowledge in professional development though theoretical and practical knowledge are two inseparable elements. The most important and final aspect I would like to mention that in a classroom environment I have learnt to deal with friends in a friendly or informal manner but in a organization I have learnt to deal with my colleagues in a friendly way but with much formal manner, which is an important and required element for individuals professional development. So, it can be said that it was a very good experience for me to complete my internship in the organisation. References Fdtownsend.com, (2015).Floyd D. Townsend Associates: A professional tax and accounting firm in Newark, New Jersey: Services. [online] Available at: Ptai.com, (2015).Phillip Townsend Associates: About Us. [online] Available at: Quickbooks.intuit.com, (2015).How To Use QuickBooks Easy to Use Features. [online] Available at: Townsend-associates.com, (2015).Townsend Associates Is Leading NJ Staffing Recruiting Firm | Townsend Associates. [online] Available at: